Muscular dystrophy refers a group of disorders that involve a progressive loss of muscle mass and consequent loss of strength.
The most common form is Duchenne muscular dystrophy. It typically affects young boys. Muscular dystrophy is caused by genetic mutationsthat interfere with the production of muscle proteins that are needed to build and maintain healthy muscles.
The causes are genetic. A family history of muscular dystrophy will increase the chance of it affecting an individual.
Muscular dystrophy is a group of over 30conditions that lead to muscle weakness and degeneration. As the condition progresses, it becomes harder to move. In some cases, it can affect breathing and heart function, leading to life-threatening complications.
Depending on the type and severity, the effects can be mild, progressing slowly over a normal lifespan, there may be moderate disability, or it can be fatal.
There is currently no way to prevent or reverse muscular dystrophy, but different kinds of therapy and drug treatment can improve a person’s quality of life and delay the progression of symptoms.
Muscular dystrophy causes the gradual weakening of skeletal muscle.
The symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy are similar but tend start in the mid-twenties or later, are milder, and progress more slowly.
Early symptoms include:
- a waddling gait
- pain and stiffness in the muscles
- difficulty with running and jumping
- walking on toes
- difficulty sitting up or standing
- learning disabilities, such as developing speech later than usual
- frequent falls
As time goes on, the following become more likely:
- inability to walk
- a shortening of muscles and tendons, further limiting movement
- breathing problems can become so severe that assisted breathing is necessary
- curvature of the spine can be caused if muscles are not strong enough to support its structure
- the muscles of the heart can be weakened, leading to cardiac problems
- Difficulty swallowing, with a risk of aspiration pneumonia. A feeding tube is sometimes necessary.
Polymyositis is a type of muscle disease called an inflammatory myopathy. It inflames muscles and their related tissues. It can cause muscle weakness and pain, affecting both sides of the body. Having this condition can make it difficult to climb stairs, rise from a seated position, lift objects or reach overhead. It’s more common in people with otherautoimmune diseaseslikelupusandrheumatoid arthritis. It’s also more common among people with HIV.
Polymyositis most commonly affects adults in their 30s, 40s or 50s.Women are affected more often than men. Signs and symptoms usually develop gradually, over weeks or months.
While there is no cure for polymyositis, treatment — ranging from medications to physical therapy — can improve your muscle strength and function.
The muscle weakness associated with polymyositis involves the muscles closest to the trunk, such as those in your hips, thighs, shoulders, upper arms and neck. The weakness affects both the left and right sides of your body, and tends to gradually worsen.
The exact cause of polymyositis is unknown, but the disease shares many characteristics with autoimmune disorders
- Difficulty swallowing.
- Aspiration pneumonia.
- Breathing problems.
Hypokalemia refers to a low potassium level in bloodstream. Potassium helps carry electrical signals to cells in your body. It is critical to the proper functioning of nerve and muscles cells, particularly heart muscle cells.
- Normally, blood potassium level is 3.6 to 5.2 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). A very low potassium level (less than 2.5 mmol/L) can be life-threatening and requires urgent medical attention
- A low potassium level has many causes but usually results from vomiting, diarrhoea, adrenal gland disorders, or use of diuretics.
- A low potassium level can make muscles feel weak, cramp, twitch, or even become paralyzed and abnormal heart rhythms may develop.
- Usually, eating foods rich in potassium or taking potassium supplements by mouth is all that is needed.
Sometimes too much potassium is excreted in urine, usually because of drugs that cause the kidneys to excrete excess sodium, water, and potassium (diuretics).
- A larger decrease can cause muscle weakness, cramping, twitches, and even paralysis.
- Abnormal heart rhythms
- Causing the person to urinate frequently and drink large amounts of water.