Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination. In many cases, vision, hearing, and sensation are also affected. CP is the most common cause of motor disabilities in childhood. Because of damage to certain parts of the brain, voluntary or involuntary movements or both can be affected. People with cerebral palsy tend to have a normal lifespan, and in many cases, a good quality of life can be expected.
- Abnormal brain development or injury to the developing brain can cause CP.
- Damage to the cerebrum before, during, or within 5 years of birth can cause cerebral palsy.
- asphyxia neonatorum or a lack of oxygen to the brain during labor and delivery
- gene mutations that result in abnormal brain development
- severe jaundice in the infant maternal infections, such German measles and herpes simplex brain infections, such as encephalitis and meningitis intracranial hemorrhage, or bleeding into the brain
- head injuries as a result of a car accident, a fall, or child abuse
- Abnormal development of the brain
- Intracranial hemorrhage
- emergency cesarean the second stage of labor is prolonged vacuum extraction during delivery fetal or neonatal heart anomalies umbilical cord abnormalities
- delays in reaching motor skill milestones, such as rolling over, sitting up alone, or crawling
- variations in muscle tone, such as being too floppy or too stiff
- delays in speech development and difficulty speaking
- spasticity, or stiff muscles and exaggerated reflexes
- ataxia, or a lack of muscle coordination tremors or involuntary movements
- excessive drooling and problems with swallowing
- difficulty walking,favoring one side of the body, such as reaching with one hand
- neurological problems, such as seizures, intellectual disabilities, and blindness
Most children are born with CP, but they may not show signs of a disorder until months or years later. Symptoms usually appear before a child reaches age 3 or 4.
- Spastic cerebral palsy
- Athetoid or dyskinetic cerebral palsy
- Ataxic cerebral palsy
- Hypotonic cerebral palsy