PCOD (Poly Cystic Ovarian Disease) or PCOS (Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome) is a disease characterized by multiple (‘poly’) cysts (small sacs filled with fluid) in the ovaries. PCOD is one of the most common reasons for infertility in women. PCOS is a problem with hormones that affects women during their childbearing years (ages 15 to 44) PCOS is a “syndrome,” or group of symptoms that affects the ovaries and ovulation.
Three main features are
- cysts in the ovaries
- high levels of male hormones
- irregular or skipped periods
- The lack of ovulation alters levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH. Estrogen and progesterone levels are lower than usual, while androgen levels are higher than usual.
- Patients with PCOD have abnormal levels of hormones that result in irregular menses, infertility and certain masculine changes in the body.
- Raised levels of Testosterone
- Raised levels of Luteinising Hormone (LH)
- low levels of Sex Hormone-Binding
- Globulin (SHBG)
- Raised levels of Prolactin
- Insulin resistance
- Irregular periods
- Reduced fertility
- Abnormal weight gain or obesity
- Heart (cardiac) complications
- Acne or skin rashes
- Excessive hair on body and face
- Pain and bleeding during periods
- Pelvic pain
- Problems pertaining to fertility and pregnancy
Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound.